A fifth primer: plane geometry tutorial for preRMO and RMO: core stuff

  1. Show that three straight lines which join the middle points of the sides of a triangle, divide it into four triangles which are identically equal.
  2. Any straight line drawn from the vertex of a triangle to the base is bisected by the straight line which joins the middle points of the other sides of the triangle.
  3. ABCD is a parallelogram, and X, Y are the middle points of the opposite sides AD, BC: prove that BX and DY trisect the diagonal AC.
  4. If the middle points of adjacent sides of any quadrilateral are joined, the figure thus formed is a parallelogram. Prove this.
  5. Show that the straight lines which join the middle points of opposite sides of a quadrilateral bisect one another.
  6. From two points A and B, and from O the mid-point between them, perpendiculars AP, and BQ, OX are drawn to a straight line CD. If AP, BQ measure respectively 4.2 cm, and 5.8 cm, deduce the length of OX. Prove that OX is one half the sum of AP and BQ. or \frac{1}{2}(AP-BQ) or \frac{1}{2}(BQ-AP) according as A and B are on the same side or on opposite sides of CD.
  7. When three parallels cut off equal intercepts from two transversals, prove that of three parallel lengths between the two transversals the middle one is the Arithmetic Mean of the other two.
  8. The parallel sides of a trapezium are a cm and b cm respectively. Prove that the line joining the middle points of the oblique sides is parallel to the parallel sides, and that its length is \frac{1}{2}(a+b) cm.
  9. OX and OY are two straight lines, and along OX five points 1,2,3,4,5 are marked at equal distances. Through these points parallels are drawn in any direction to meet OY. Measure the lengths of these parallels : take their average and compare it with the lengths of the third parallel. Prove geometrically that the third parallel is the mean of all five.
  10. From the angular points of a parallelogram perpendiculars are drawn to any straight line which is outside the parallelogram : prove that the sum of the perpendiculars drawn from one pair of opposite angles is equal to the sum of those drawn from the other pair.  (Draw the diagonals,and from their point of intersection suppose a perpendicular drawn to the given straight line.)
  11. The sum of the perpendiculars drawn from any point in the base of an isosceles triangle to the equal to the equal sides is equal to the perpendicular drawn from either extremity of the base to the opposite side. It follows that the sum of the distances of any point in the base of an isosceles triangle from the equal sides is constant, that is, the same whatever point in the base is taken).
  12. The sum of the perpendiculars drawn from any point within the an equilateral triangle to the three sides is equal to the perpendicular drawn from any one of the angular points to the opposite side, and is therefore, constant. Prove this.
  13. Equal and parallel lines have equal projections on any other straight line. Prove this.

More later,

Cheers,

Nalin Pithwa.

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