# A quadratic and trigonometry combo question: RMO and IITJEE maths coaching

Question:

Given that $\tan {A}$ and $\tan {B}$ are the roots of the quadratic equation $x^{2}+px+q=0$, find the value of $\sin^{2}{(A+B)}+ p \sin{(A+B)}\cos{(A+B)} + q\cos^{2}{(A+B)}$

Solution:

Let $\alpha=\tan{A}$ and $\beta=\tan{B}$ be the two roots of the given quadratic equation: $x^{2}+px+q=0$

By Viete’s relations between roots and coefficients: $\alpha+\beta=\tan{A}+\tan{B}=-p$ and $\alpha \beta = \tan{A}\tan{B}=q$ but we also know that $\tan{(A+B)}=\frac{\tan{A}+\tan{B}}{1-\tan{A}\tan{B}}=\frac{-p}{1-q}=\frac{p}{q-1}$

Now, let us call $E=\sin^{2}{(A+B)}+p\sin{(A+B)\cos{(A+B)}}+\cos^{2}{(A+B)}$ which in turn is same as $\cos^{2}{(A+B)}(\tan^{2}{(A+B)}+p\tan{(A+B)}+q)$

We have already determined $\tan{(A+B)}$ in terms of p and q above.

Now, again note that $\sin^{2}{\theta}+\cos^{2}{\theta}=1$ which in turn gives us that $\tan^{2}{\theta}+1=\sec^{2}{\theta}$ so we get: $\sec^{2}{(A+B)}=1+\tan^{2}{(A+B)}=1+\frac{p^{2}}{(q-1)^{2}}=\frac{p^{2}+(q-1)^{2}}{(q-1)^{2}}$ so that $\cos^{2}{(A+B)}=\frac{1}{\sec^{2}{(A+B)}}=\frac{(q-1)^{2}}{p^{2}+(q-1)^{2}}$

Hence, the given expression E becomes: $(\frac{(q-1)^{2}}{p^{2}+(q-1)^{2}})(\frac{p^{2}}{(q-1)^{2}}+\frac{p^{2}}{q-1}+q)$, which is the desired solution.

🙂 🙂 🙂

Nalin Pithwa.

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