In Statistical Mechanics, one encounters the situation of putting k particles into r distinct energy levels. The particles can thus be considered as discrete objects and the different energy levels as distinct boxes or cells. Three different situations are obtained by making three different assumptions. These are:
a) Maxwell-Boltzmann: Here the particles are all distinct and any number of particles can be put into any of the r boxes. The number of possibilities are as given by the following theorem:
Let M be a multi set consisting of r distinct objects, each with infinite multiplicity. Then, the total number of d-permutations of M is .
b) Bose-Einstein: Here the particles are all identical and any number of particles can be put in any one of the r boxes. The number of possibilities is as given by the following theorem:
The following sets are in bijective correspondence:
i) The set of all increasing sequences of length k on an ordered set with r elements.
ii) The set of all the ways of putting k identical objects into r distinct boxes.
iii) The set of all the k-combinations of a multi-set with r distinct elements.
c) Fermi-Dirac: Here the particles are all identical but no box can hold more than one particle. The number of possibilities is .